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A biopsy for identifying mesothelioma can be done in different ways, depending on the location of the abnormal area. If the cancer is in the chest, the doctor may perform a thoracoscopy, which is a small cut through the chest wall and inserting a thin, lighted tube called a thoracoscope into the chest between two ribs. Thoracoscopy lets the doctor look inside the chest and obtain tissue samples. If the cancer is in the abdomen, the doctor may perform a peritoneoscopy. In this procedure, the doctor makes a small opening in the abdomen and inserts a special instrument called a peritoneoscope into the abdominal cavity. If these procedures do not yield enough tissue, more extensive diagnostic surgery may be necessary.